Posted by on July 11, 2016 - 8:35am

A recent study published in the American Journal of Emergency Medicine found that sex-differences exist in emergency room evaluation and treatment times for patients presenting with a heart attack [1]. The retrospective study conducted at the University of Pennsylvania analyzed treatment times for over 250 patients with confirmed heart attacks. The study authors found that women, on average, wait 3 minutes longer to receive an initial EKG than men. Additionally, women wait 7 minutes longer than men for a heart attack treatment protocol to be activated, with the total average time being 25.5 minutes for women and 18.5 minutes for men. Current recommendations suggest that anyone presenting with a suspected heart attack should be evaluated and a treatment protocol initiated in less than 20 minutes [2]. Thus, women may be subject to additional heart damage as time passes without intervention.

According to the American Heart Association, women may experience a wide variety of symptoms during a heart attack which can include:

  • Chest pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Sweating
  • Pain in the arms, jaw, back or stomach
  • Nausea or vomiting

 However, the most common symptom is chest pain or discomfort which is experienced by both men and women. It may be possible that sex-based bias exists in the initial diagnosis of heart attacks as evidence by this research. Additional studies which explore sex-differences within evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of heart attacks and other cardiovascular disease may promote enhanced survival for both men and women.

 To learn more about the signs and symptoms of heart attacks in women check out the following video by the American Heart Association which was directed by, and stars Elizabeth Banks: It’s Just a Little Heart Attack.  


  1. Choi et al., Am J Emerg Med. 2016; EPub ahead of print.
  2. McCabe et al., Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2012; 5(5):672-9.
  3. American Heart Association