In our daily life, we are exposed to a variety of sounds from conversations in the workplace, to music on the radio, or the hum of traffic during our commute. Typically, these sounds are at a safe level for our hearing health. However, repeated exposure to loud noises from heavy machinery or using headphones at a high volume can lead to noise-induced hearing loss.

The Centers for Disease Control estimates that 40 million Americans between the ages of 20 - 69 suffer from noise induced hearing loss. Men are 2 to 5 times more likely to experience hearing loss than women, but this may be a direct result of gender differences in occupational noise exposure, where men are more likely to work in noisy environments like the military, industry, farming, or aviation [1-3]. This does not exclude the possibility that sex could also impact noise-induced hearing loss on a biological level.

A recent study published in the journal Noise & Health found that a sex bias exists in basic and preclinical research which examines noise-induced hearing loss. The authors reviewed 210 studies on noise-induced hearing loss and found that of the 154 studies (73%) which reported the sex of the animal, the majority (61%) used only male animals. Looking across the 5-year study period, sex bias worsened over time with male-only studies increasing from 37% in 2011 to 56% in 2015.

The authors suggest that sex inclusion in noise-induced hearing loss research is essential to improving hearing health and highlight opportunities where sex as a biological variable can be considered.

To learn more about sex inclusion in biomedical research visit

For more information on hearing health, check out our newsletter on the topic!

1. Lin et al., J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2011 May; 66A(5): 582–590.
2. Lie et al., Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2016; 89: 351–372.
3. West et al.,  Ear Hear. 2016;37(2):194-205.
4. Lauer and Schrode. Noise Health. 2017;19(90):207-212.