The WHRI has complied a series of publications and reports which explore the importance of considering sex and gender in research.  Articles are listed in chronological order. Authors highlighted in bold are are affilitated with the WHRI. 


     McGregor AJ, Beauchamp GA, Wira CR 3rd, Perman SM, Safdar B., West J Emerg Med. 2017 Oct;18(6):1079-1090.

  • A Guide for the Design of Pre-clinical Studies on Sex Differences in Metabolism. Mauvais-Jarvis F, Arnold AP, Reue K., Cell Metab. 2017 Jun 6;25(6):1216-1230.

  • Sex/gender influences on the nervous system: Basic steps toward clinical progress.

    Brooks CE and Clayton JA., J Neurosci Res. 2017 Jan 2;95(1-2):14-16.

  • Considering sex as a biological variable in preclinical research.

    Miller LR, Marks C, Becker JB, Hurn PD, Chen WJ, Woodruff TK, McCarthy MM, Sohrabji F, Scheibinger L, Wetherington CL, Makris S, Arnold AP, Einstein G Miller VM, Sandberg K, Maier S, Cornelison TL, Clayton JA., FASEB J. 2017 Jan;31(1):29-34. 

  • Integrating sex and gender into neurodegeneration research: A six-component strategy.

    Tierney MC, Curtis AF, Chertkow H, Rylett RJ., Alzheimers Dement (N Y). 2017 Nov 22;3(4):660-667.

  • Sex-biased eicosanoid biology: Impact for sex differences in inflammation and consequences for pharmacotherapy.                                                                                                                              Pace S, Sautebin L, Werz O., Biochem Pharmacol. 2017 Dec 1;145:1-11. 

  • Sex Bias Is Increasingly Prevalent in Preclinical Cardiovascular Research: Implications for Translational Medicine and Health Equity for Women: A Systematic Assessment of Leading Cardiovascular Journals Over a 10-Year Period. Ramirez FD, Motazedian P, Jung RG, Di Santo P, MacDonald Z, Simars T, Clancy AA, Russo JJ, Welch V, Wells GA, Hibbert B., Circulation. 2017 Feb 7;135(6):625-626.

  • Consideration of Sex Differences in Medicine to Improve Healthcare and Patient Outcomes
    Legato MJ, Johnson PA, Manson JE. 2016;[Epub ahead of print] 

  • Reporting Sex, Gender, or Both in Clinical Research? 
    Clayton JA, Tannenbaum C. JAMA. 2016;[Epub ahead of print] 

  • Considering sex as a biological variable in preclinical research 
    Miller LRMarks CBecker JBHurn PDChen WJWoodruff T, McCarthy MMSohrabji FSchiebinger LWetherington CLMakris SArnold APEinstein GMiller VMSandberg KMaier SCornelison TLClayton JA., FASEB J. 2016;[Epub ahead of print]

  • Balance of the Sexes: Addressing Sex Differences in Preclinical Research
    Zakiniaeiz Y, Cosgrove KP, Potenza MN, Mazure CM., Yale J Biol Med. 2016;89(2):255-9.

  • Evaluating sex as a biological variable in preclinical research: the devil in the details
    Tannenbaum C, Schwarz JM, Clayton JA, de Vries GJ, Sullivan C., Biol Sex Differ. 2016;7:13. 

  • Policy: NIH to balance sex in cell and animal studies
    Clayton JA, Collins FS., Nature. 2014;509(7500):282-3. 

  • Sex bias exists in basic science and translational surgical research
    Yoon DY, Mansukhani NA, Stubbs VC, Helenowski IR, Woodruff TK, Kibbe MR., Surgery. 2014;156(3):508-16. 

  • Sex, Equity, and Science 
    Woodruff TKProc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2014;111(14):5063-4. 

  • Leaning in to Support Sex Differences in Basic Science and Clinical Research
    Woodruff TK, Kibbe MR, Paller AS, Turek, FW, Woolley CS., 
    Endocrinology. 2014 Apr;155(4):1181-3.

  • Sex specific Medical Research: Why Women's Health Can't WaitBrigham and Women's Hospital. 2014.  

  • Sex-specific Reporting of Scientific Research. Institute of Medicine, National Academies of Sciences. 2012. 

  • Sex and Gender Differences in Pharmacology
    Regitz-Zagrosek, V (Ed). Springer. 2012.   

  • Adverse effects in women: Implications for drug development and regulatory policies
    Parekh AFadiran EOUhl KThrockmorton DC., Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009 Mar;29(3):279-83. 

  • Sex Differences and Implications for Translational Neuroscience Research. Institute of Medicine, National Academies of Sciences2010. 

  • Sex bias in trials and treatment must end
    Kim AK, Tingen C, Woodruff, TK., Nature. 2010;465(7299):688-9. 

  • Women's Health Research:  Progress, Pitfalls, and PromiseInstitute of Medicine, National Academies of Sciences. 2010. 

  • Moving into the Future with New Dimensions and Strategies:  A Vision for 2020 for Women's Health Research. Office of Research on Women's Heath, National Institutes of Health. 2010.  

  • Status of women in cardiovascular clinical trials
    Kim ES, Menon V. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009;29(3):279-83. 

  • Monitoring adherence to the NIH policy on the inclusion of women and minorities as subjects in clinical research. National Institutes of Health. 2013. 

  • Sex differences in perceived risks, distrust, and willingness to participate in clinical trials: A randomized study of cardiovascular prevention trials 
    Ding EL, Powe NR, Manson JE, Sherber NS, Braunstein JB., Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(9):905-12. 

  • Recruitment of women research participants: The Women's Health Registry at the University of Michigan
    Rogers JL, Johnson TR, Brown MB, Lantz PM, Greene A, Smith YR., J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2007;16(5):721-8.

  • Adherence to federal guidelines for reporting of sex and race/ethnicity in clinical trials
    Geller SE, Adams MG, Carnes M., J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2006;15(10):1123-31. 

  • Principles of Gender-Specific Medicine
    Legato MJ, Elsevier. 2009. 

  • Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health: Does Sex Matter? Institute of Medicine, National Academies of Sciences. 2001.

  • Women subjects in NIH-funded clinical research literature: Lack of progress in both representation and analysis by sex 
    Vidaver RM, Lafleur B, Tong C, Bradshaw R, Marts SA., J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 2000;9(9):1041-3.

  • Minorities, women, and clinical cancer research: The charge, promise, and challenge
    Underwood SM, Ann Epidemiol. 2000;10(8 Suppl):S3-12. 

  • NIH guidelines for the inclusion of women and minorities as subjects in clinical research. National Institutes of Health. 2000.