The Mediterranean Diet is known to have many health benefits, but a recent study published in the journal Stroke examined the impact that the diet has specifically on the risk of stroke, and whether the diet impacts the risk of stroke in men and women differently. The Mediterranean Diet emphasizes eating fish, fruits, vegetables, and nuts, and using olive oil as the main source of fat. It also includes moderate alcohol consumption, but only small quantities of meat and dairy. 
The study was conducted in the United Kingdom, among a population-based group of 23,232 individuals aged 40 to 77, of whom 54.5% were women. The individuals in the study were followed for 17 years, with stroke incidence calculated and stratified by sex and risk of cardiovascular disease. To determine adherence to the Mediterranean diet, participants completed a 7-day diet diary. 
The findings indicate that overall, the risk of stroke among all the study participants decreased significantly with greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Interestingly, when stratified by sex, the risk of stroke among women was reduced even more, and although there was a decrease of risk of stroke among the male population, it was not significant.  The overall risk of stroke incidence decreased 17% among both men and women, decreased 22% among just women, and decreased only 6% among men.  Researchers are unsure what causes the difference in risk reduction among men and women on the Mediterranean diet, and suggest further studies to understand more clearly associations between diet and risk of stroke.
 Paterson, K.E., Myint, P.K., Jennings, A., Bain, L.K.M, Lentjes, M.A.H., Khaw, K.T., & Welch, A.A. Mediterranean Diet Reduces Risk of Incident Stroke in a Population With Varying Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profiles. Stroke. 2018 Oct; 49(10): 2415–2420.